ADR 2: Repository Standardization

Date: 2022-07-06


Lorenzo Calegari <>




IOG is undertaking a company-wide effort to restructure and standardize its repositories, favoring mono-repos and enforcing shared GitOps and DevOps processes. Parallel to this, a new CI infrastructure is being developed.

Examples of this are:

This initiative appears to be championed by the SRE team who are the creators of divnix/std. Indeed std is at the heart of the standardization dream.


  • Standardization of the repositories has been deemed a worthwhile endeavour, though of very low priority.

  • Phase 1 of the standardization process will be carried out in parallel with Move Marconi to a separate repository. A separate repository will be created for Marconi, and from the very beginning it will use std. This way the benefits, limitations and integration costs of std can be experienced and measured, and an informed, definitive decision on standardizing plutus-core and plutus-apps themselves can be made.


In short, std aims to answer the one critical question that pops in the mind of newcomers and veterans alike:

What can I do with this repository?

In practice, std is flake-based nix library code that provides a strongly-but-sensibly-opinionated top-level interface for structuring all your nix code.

This is wonderful news for the owner of the repository’s nix code, but what about every other stakeholder? Especially developers who don’t care/know about nix?

Contributors of a standardized codebase will be gifted with a TUI to discover and interact with the repository, which is probably something that is long overdue as an industry-level best-practice.

Who wouldn’t want to clone a repository, type std and be presented with a TUI that gives you an interactive tour of the repository’s artifacts, together with a list of all possible DevOps and GitOps actions (build, test, develop, run, deploy, benchmark, publish, package, monitor, …) in addition to any other action that you may define.

And for power users and automators, there is an equivalent CLI to the TUI. This makes README files obsolete to an extent. A TUI/CLI combo represents the best conceivable solution in terms of user experience (only a GUI could top that perhaps).

In conclusion, the advantages of standardizing the repositories are:

  • Enforce a shared mental model for internal and external teams to effortlessly reason about the codebase.

  • Provide a TUI/CLI to more easily discover, interact with, and contribute to the repository, with the goal to provide a superior user experience to all stakeholders.

  • Refactor all existing Nix code into a supposedly far better structure. std seems to solve the “import problem” by automatically parsing the directory structure and threading all derivations into a globally accessible top-level scope, drastically reducing the average length of paths in the dependency graph, both at the file level and at the term/variable level. This all translates into cleaner, more maintainable code.


The plutus repositories now exhibit a large amount of duplicated nix (and configuration) code, as a result of the split into plutus-core and plutus-apps.

While introducing std will not in itself help reduce duplication, the refactoring process will involve identifying and isolating shared components that can be later packaged and separated into library code.

The goal is to standardize both repositories, by introducing std and refactoring all existing nix code accordingly.

The SRE team has also created several other satellite repositories containing reusable nix code to support this process, though it is unclear at this stage whether these are relevant to standardizing plutus-core and plutus-apps.

Such repositories include:

The standardization process would follow the 4 Layers SRE Mental Model, which begins by introducing std in Layer 1 (binary packaging). Layers 2-3-4 (which is mostly DevOps) will be postponed to a later date, once the migration to the new CI systems has been officially approved and initiated.